You Can Fight The Law and Win – I Did!

So many times I have heard women say “but I can’t afford an attorney.” Sadly, this is often the case for victims of domestic abuse. Such was the case with me – I was financially drained by the time my divorce was final. The truth is, however, you CAN fight back without the assistance of an attorney, and you CAN win, if you know what the court considers in domestic violence cases (the truth may surprise you.) While it was the most difficult time of my life, I made it happen, and I can now share with you exactly how I did it.

My eBook, “I’m Still Standing” outlines the strategy I used to fight my ex-husband in court without the assistance of an attorney as a result of his multiple attempts to take my child in an effort to maintain control of my life. While he had the benefit of legal costly legal counsel (and therefore assumed he could abuse and manipulate the system to continue to harm me), I had the LAW to fall back on. One would think it would be cut and dry.

Much to my horror, the law refused to protect me, and I had to get tough. It was a do-or-die situation, and my instinct to live came to serve me when I most needed it. I strategically forced the law to enforce itself, and it is to this fact that I owe my livelihood and life free from abuse today.

Please break your silence and end the violence.

For Women: Ice Is Nice!

Ice therapy is a women’s best friend. Really! I’m not kidding. When it comes to alternative medicine, using ice is an easy, drug-free and inexpensive therapy right out of your freezer. The simple technique of ‘icing’ is used to lessen pain and decrease inflammation, but it has many more uses, particularly for women.

Injury treatment – For sports and overuse injuries. R.I.C.E. therapy (rest-ice-compression-elevation) is the recommended method to treat muscle and joint pain, strains and sprains. Many athletes also use ice therapy as preventative treatment after a workout. Did you know that women’s risk of developing ACL injuries is four times greater then men? Always have ice therapy on hand after a marathon or off the slopes, in case your anterior cruciated ligament decides now’s the time to act up.

Comfort back pain – Forty-one percent, or 10 million women a year, suffer from back pain. The major causes for women’s back pain are housework and gardening. Cool lower back pain with ice therapy. It’s an easy, immediate relief for nagging pain after you’ve been pulling weeds or lugging groceries.

Ease migraine headache pain – Every woman experiences migraines at some point in their life. It might be part of your monthly cycle or a symptom of menopause. Ice therapy is a proven remedy for migraine relief. Lie down for five to ten minutes and place an ice pack behind your neck, on your forehead or temples. Ice naturally reduces inflammation and numbs pain, decreasing the effect of migraines and easing you into relief without the use of drugs.

Chill hot flashes and night sweats – 80% of women will experience body heat fluctuations during menopause. Nothing chills a hot flash like an ice pack! Keep a chilled pack in an insulated tote next to your bed at night, ready when a flush of heat wakes you up.

Family first aid and home emergencies – If you have children or an accident-prone husband, an ice pack in the freezer is a necessity. Considered the first line of treatment to use for bumps, bruises, sprains, black eyes, strains or minor burns, ice therapy is a must for home emergencies.

Reduce swelling after surgery – Whether it’s cosmetic, reconstructive, or joint replacement – all will result in postoperative swelling and bruising. Ice therapy is recommend by most doctors to decrease inflammation and bruising after surgery.

Reduce puffy eyes – Not enough sleep? Allergies? Ice therapy relieves puffy, swollen eyes with a little TLC.

Cool minor burns and treat insect bites – Like to garden, but hate sunburn and bugs bites? Summer sun and pesky bugs won’t get the best of you when you use ice therapy. Wrap an ice pack in a towel for a cold compress to gently cool sunburned skin. (But don’t use on skin that has blistered – seek medical attention for damaged skin.) Take the sting out of bug bites, by using an ice massage directly on the bite for 5 to 10 minutes. It will numb pain, relieve some of the itching, and reduce swollen bumps caused by the bite.

Let ice be nice to you!

Disclaimer: This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical treatment or consultation. Always consult with your physician in the event of a serious injury.

Menopause Symptoms

Menopause is an integral part of women’s life; no women can avoid the ultimate consequences. It is one step in a long reproductive degenerative, aging process, which almost begins silently at the age of 40 or so. Declining levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone cause various changes, which eventually lead to menopause.

Menopause symptoms can vary from woman to woman; changing hormone levels can cause a variety of symptoms which may last from a few months to a few years or longer. Some women may feel the worse of it, yet some other may feel very less of it. One of the most noticeable changes that occur during the onset of menopause is visible changes in occurrence of periods. Many women experience less regular periods; some have a lighter menstrual flow than normal; others face a heavier flow and may bleed a lot for many days. Periods may occur less than 3 weeks apart or last more than a week. There may be slight spotting between periods. Women, who have had previous problems with heavy menstrual periods and cramps, will usually find marked relief from these symptoms, when menopause starts.

One more noticeable symptom is the repeated occurrences of “hot flashes”, which is sudden feeling of heat in the upper part or all of woman’s body. Face and neck become extremely flushed. Flashes can be as mild as a light instant blush or just very severe enough to wake her from a sound sleep (also called night sweats). Most flashes usually last between 30 seconds and 5 minutes. The most common visible effects are the occurrences of red blotches all over the body.

Menopause symptoms also include remarkable changes in the genital and bladder behavior. As the estrogen levels change, the genital area can get drier and thinner. The resultant dryness makes sexual intercourse more painful. Vaginal and urinary tract infections are also very common during this time. Other problems can make it hard enough to hold urine long enough to get even to the bathroom. Urine leaks also occur during exercise, sneezing, coughing, laughing, or running.

Sexual behavior also undergoes tremendous changes during menopause. Some women find that their feelings about sex change drastically with menopause. Some have marked changes to the vagina, such as dryness, that makes sexual intercourse very painful. Others feel freer and sexier after menopause — relieved that pregnancy is no longer a real worry.

Sleep problems are more common during menopause. Some women may find it very hard to sleep at night- they may not fall asleep easily or may wake too early. Once woken from sleep, they may find it very to go to sleep again. Hot flashes may also wake them up very easily.

One of the most common menopause changes is the change in mood. This may cause a marked shift in moods, caused by stress, family changes such as children leaving home, or feeling tired. Depression is how ever not a cause of menopause.

Drastic changes in body characteristics are another symptom of menopause. Some women find that their bodies change around the time of menopause. Women tend to get fattier and skin tends to get thinner too. Memory lapses do occur very frequently. Some women feel acute joint and muscle stiffness during menopause. Regular exercises will help them to over come many of these problems. Menopause is irreversible and is the gift of nature; it needs to be accepted whole heartedly and life style adjusted accordingly to the situation.

Menopause Symptoms []

Fibromyalgia Facts For Females

Fibromyalgia is one of the most common diseases affecting the muscles, tendons, and joints in women. Many health care professionals still do not recognize the condition as a disorder, most likely, because x-rays, blood tests, and biopsies often show no prevalent evidence to support the patient’s complaints. However, in recent years, the use of thermographs, a device that tests and measures the heat produced by areas of the body, has helped diagnose the condition. Studies indicate that fibromyalgia patients have decreased blood flow and decreased skin temperatures in sites of tenderness. Symptoms include long-term muscle soreness, muscle stiffness, sleeplessness, fatigue, mood changes, anxiety and depression. Often times the condition is worsened by stress and weather changes. Unlike other rheumatic conditions that cause swelling and inflammation of the tissues in the body, fibromyalgia does not cause any type of joint deformity or does not damage any internal organs.

Many times, patients that suffer with fibromyalgia have other conditions or disorders that will occur. One of the most common disorders associated with fibromyalgia is TMJ, a disorder associated with the jaw. Many sufferers of fibromyalgia may be diagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, as well. Some patients complain of migraine or tension headaches, irritable bowel and bladder syndromes. Some women may develop a loss in memory and concentration. Fibrocystic Breast Disease and Endometriosis is often present in women that have fibromyalgia, although there has been no studies conducted regarding the correlation of the two.

Causes of this condition is still unknown, many experts are researching the relationship between menopause and fibromyalgia. Most women are diagnosed with this condition between the ages of 40 to 55 which is when menopause usually occurs, and approximately 85%-90% of all reported Fibromyalgia conditions are women. Hormonal changes, such as the decreased amounts of estrogen in the female body, may contribute to symptoms like anxiety, depression, and sleeplessness in fibromyalgia patients. Research shows, however, that estrogen and progesterone replacement therapy is not that beneficial to fibromyalgia sufferers. There are mild benefits reported when using the estrogen patches rather than the estrogen pills. Some studies indicate that the low thyroid function and decreased levels of thyroid hormones, as well as estrogen and progesterone hormones, may contribute to muscular pain, fatigue, mood changes, and anxiety. At the present time the correlation between menopause and fibromyalgia is uncertain, due to the lack of research on the subject. Fortunately, more tests are being conducted to find out how declining estrogen levels affect the onset of fibromyalgia. On-going research is being conducted that may suggest abnormally low levels of the hormone Cortisol, which is the hormone produced by the adrenal gland may also be a linked cause.

Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent this disorder or completely cure it, either… Therefore, most treatment’s center on conquering the symptoms associated with fibromyalgia. Treatments for women suffering from fibromyalgia vary according to symptoms. In some cases, physical therapy or light exercise may be prescribed. Research has shown that the use of ice immediately following any exercise may decrease muscle and joint pain. The use of tricyclic anti-depressants usually used in treating depression; has also been shown to be an effective medication for treating firbromyalgia. These medications usually relieve depression, anxiety, reduce fatigue, and restores effective sleep patterns. Some physicians may prescribe local injections of analgesics to the sore or stiff areas. The use of pain-relievers and muscle relaxers has both been beneficial in reducing pain symptoms and improving sleep. Often times, doctors will discuss pain and stress management to their patients; which can eliminate some symptoms of the disorder.

Diet plays an important role in the prevention of symptoms concerning fibromyalgia. Eating organic foods, such as fruits and vegetables; increasing the intake of low-fat, high fiber foods; those high in Omega-3 Fatty acids, found in fish may benefit sufferers. Some physicians suggest lowering sodium rich foods or eliminating additives such as monosodium glutamate (MSG’s) and artificial sweeteners, like Aspartame may relieve many symptoms of fibromyalgia. And recent studies indicate the use of a vegan diet may help alleviate symptoms. Alternative treatments, specifically in the field of homeopathic remedies, suggest taking magnesium, B-12 Vitamins, and Vitamin C.

Other non-medical treatments involve massage therapy, heat therapy and cold packs that may temporarily relieve symptoms. The use of Hydrotherapy or water therapy can increase circulation and decrease muscle aches. Currently, there are studies being conducted that may offer more treatments or one specific treatment for helping relieve fibromyalgia symptoms.

Women suffering with this disorder may find themselves withdrawing from society due to the pain and anxiety associated with fibromyalgia. Many times, women find themselves unable to work a physical or stressful job. The best advice is to seek treatment and maintain a healthy lifestyle, which includes light exercise, good eating habits, and staying active in both, work and life.

Premenstrual Syndrome: Plagued with Premenstrual Syndrome? Try Calcium!

At last, there’s hope for millions of women suffering from Premenstrual Syndrome. Researchers have found that a regular intake of calcium may reduce premenstrual syndrome be as much as 60 per cent.

It’s a problem that has baffled doctors and worried women. Symptoms that occur a week or two before a woman’s monthly periods. While these symptoms usually disappear after your period starts, PMS or Premenstrual Syndrome often interferes with the women’s normal activities at home or work.

Despite ongoing studies, the cause of Premenstrual Syndrome are not yet clear. Of course, some women may be more sensitive than others to changing hormone levels during the menstrual cycle. While some believe that stress does not seem to cause Premenstrual Syndrome, it could make it worse. Studies have revealed that Premenstrual Syndrome can affect menstruating women of any age and that Premenstrual Syndrome can affect menstruating women of any age and that Premenstrual Syndrome often includes both physical and emotional symptoms.

Now, the latest on the Premenstrual Syndrome front is that a diet rich in calcium appears to reduce the risk of developing Premenstrual Syndrome by as much as 40 per cent.

Most women experience mild Premenstrual Syndrome, but for about 20 percent, the symptoms can be severe. These symptoms define Premenstrual Syndrome and can interfere with daily activities and relationships, according to a report published in the Archives of Internal Medicine .

Calcium supplements and Vitamin D, which aid the absorption of calcium are believed to reduce the occurrence and severity of Premenstrual Syndrome. To find out the effect of dietary Calcium on Premenstrual Syndrome, data on women with and without Premenstrual Syndrome was collected. The comparison showed that calcium intake had a profound effect on whether women developed Premenstrual Syndrome. ” We found that women with highest intake of Vitamin D and calcium from food sources did have a significantly reduced risk of being diagnosed with Premenstrual Syndrome,” Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson of the University Of Massachusetts, said.

The largest result was seen in women who consumed about 1,200 mgs of Calcium and 500 IU of vitamin D per day. “We found the women who consumed four servings per day of skin or low-fat milk, fortified orange juice and low fat dairy foods, had approximately a 40 per cent lower risk of being diagnosed with Premenstrual Syndrome, than women who only consumed these foods about once per week,” she said.

Levels of calcium and vitamin D fluctuate across the menstrual cycle, and this might define women with and without Premenstrual Syndrome, she added. The findings should encourage them to eat more foods rich in calcium and vitamin D, she said. What’s more, these nutrients have also been associated with other health benefits, such as the reduced of osteoporosis and some cancers.

Must Read: Sailing through Menopause with ease: Menopause symptoms, exercise, tips and diet at

Calcium Tips and Benefits:

. When purchasing calcium supplements, look for the elemental Calcium content.

. Studies have shown that it is the intake of dairy products with the natural combination of calcium, magnesium and potassium that helps to prevent and control hypertension

. Calcium can help you maintain proper pH levels, and to reverse acidic conditions.

. Calcium is fat burner. Studies have shown that the people with the highest calcium intake overall weighed the least

Must Read: Case Study: How Calcium helps in Weight Loss too at

What Couples Can Do When They Are Going Through Menopause Together

Couples going through menopause often have unique struggles when coping with the new changes and challenges it brings to them both as individuals, and as partners. It is an inner battle – mentally and physically – for not just women, but men as well.

For women, it may be hard to get a male partner to understand and be able to empathise with her challenges. But both sexes go through a form of menopause, and this transition is disruptive and even scary, and a certain level of understanding and communication is required for any one to have a quality relationship at this stage of life.

Nancy Cetel talks about many of the changes couples experience in her book Double Menopause, and what often happens is that emotions, including past hurts, hopes, dreams, etc., that may have been buried or unexpressed in the past, can no longer hidden.

It can’t be helped – the truth will not be held back any longer. For some women, that shows up in pent up aggression that is taken out on a male partner by pushing him away and/or making him unable to relate to you on a physical level. Men need to know that the loss of desire for sex may be caused from the hormonal changes, but there might also be an emotional element that needs to be dealt with.

It is advisable that men in menopause couples acquaint themselves with the effects of menopause, in themselves and their partners, in order to better understand the changes their relationship is going through. Men soon realize that hormonal imbalances are causing unwanted emotional symptoms in women that could lead to verbal spats every now and then.

Men need to be aware that emotional changes are likely to occur and that they are not to blame for them but that their partner may require extra attention, love and outward expressions of caring more now than ever before.

Men need to understand that their sexual drives could also have changed as they experience a slower loss of testosterone. To keep sexual interest, partners may need to put more time and attention into the quality of their sex lives and ‘update’ themselves on what things turn them on at this stag of the game.

Men need to know that a decrease in estrogen in their lover’s bodies – can significantly alter how she thinks and feels about sex. In addition, vaginal discomfort and thinning of the lining of the vagina can make sex painful so it will not be enjoyable for either of them until they find a solution for this.

More than ever this is a critical time for couples to communicate more about the changes they are both experiencing. Christian Northrup talks about ‘reversing roles’ as couples go through this transition in her book the Wisdom of Menopause.

Men often lose a lot of the aggression that once fueled their younger years and they are happier to stay home and engage in more nurturing activities, that they never paid attention to before, such as cooking. Women, on the other hand, may want to venture out into the world and pursue a long-thought about career. They become more aggressive and passionate about accomplishing things. In this way, the couple almost switch roles in the relationship.

Talking a lot, expressing ideas, and bonding with one another again becomes critical during this transition. Men need to know what is happening to their women on a day-to-day basis, and visa versa. Women want men to cheer them on as they undergo significant changes including dealing with physical discomfort, hormonal imbalances, and possibly venturing out into the career world for the first time!

Men need to know that sex isn’t going away totally. Explore sexual alternatives and realize that having less sex is not the end of the world! Experiment with vibrators, and oral sex, if you haven’t already as these are fine alternatives and to maintain a healthy sex life.

Women love toys as much as guys do. Menopause might mean taking more time for foreplay for some women. Get into a habit of communicating your needs to each other and learn to enjoy the changes instead of fighting against them.

The most important thing is that husbands provide a social network for their menopausal wives to rely on. Realize that menopause is only a phase, albeit the end of the old and the beginning of a new one, and it’s possible to adjust to the changes by remaining aware.

By staying informed of each other’s thoughts and feelings and becoming tolerant and understanding to the emotional pains women can go through, menopause couples can overcome most difficulties. And, who knows, you might like the new person you wake up to better! Think of it as another adventure.

Lichen Sclerosis

What is lichen sclerosis and what does it look like?

Lichen sclerosis (LS) is a skin condition that makes the vulva look white, slightly shiny, and smooth. The skin’s surface becomes thin and delicate so that it tears easily. This can cause bleeding under the skin. In severe cases of lichen sclerosis of the genital area, scarring can occur. This causes the inner lips of the vulva to get smaller. The clitoris can become covered in scar tissue.

What causes lichen sclerosis?

We do not know the exact cause of lichen sclerosis. Scientists have different theories to try to explain the cause. Some scientists think that an overactive immune system may play a role in causing the disease. Some people may also develop lichen sclerosis due to their genes or to changes in hormones. Since lichen sclerosis is not caused by an infection, it cannot be spread and is not contagious.

What are the symptoms of lichen sclerosis?

Symptoms of lichen sclerosis may be different from one person to another and can be mild to severe. Girls and young women who have this disease may experience some or all of the following symptoms in the vulva area:

Mild to severe itching in the vulva area

Skin that appears fragile, pale, and/or white

Bruised skin with broken blood vessels or “blood blisters”

Small tears or fissures in the skin

Scar tissue covering the labia or clitoris

Bleeding or tearing of skin when having bowel movements

How is lichen sclerosis diagnosed?

Lichen sclerosis can be a difficult diagnosis to make. It is not unusual for someone to see more than one doctor before the disease is finally diagnosed. Most of the time, doctors who see many patients with lichen sclerosis can often make the diagnosis just by looking at the skin. However in most cases if you are in the early stages of lichen sclerosis, the doctor may have to do a biopsy (removal and examination of a small sample of affected skin) to identify the cause of your symptoms.

Are You In The Grip Of Candida?

If you have an ongoing immune problem, it is very possible that you have an overgrowth of Candida.

Candida is a symbiotic yeast, which lives in us and on us, as part of our normal collection of microorganisms. It vies with numerous other microbes, but can become proliferous, causing a number of symptoms.

Some symptoms of Candida are: a good deal of fatigue and problems with concentration and short-term memory. You may experience flu-like symptoms such as pain in the joints and muscle.

You could have a problem with hyper-acidity/acid reflux. Chronic sinus problems are not uncommon if you have Candida and headaches including migraines may be part of your symptoms.

Also you will probably notice a brown colored mucus in the back of the throat, blisters in the mouth/tongue/throat, or a white coating to the tongue, especially the back part.

You may also suffer from mental emotional problems such as depression, irritability, anxiety, panic attacks, recurring obsessive thoughts, personality changes, and mood swings

Now everyone that has several of these symptoms may not have Candida, but it is something to check on. I will share a Home test you can perform.

Simple Home Test For Candida

First, you need to know if you have a problem with Candida. You can try this simple home test to find out.

First thing in the morning, before you put ANYTHING in your mouth, fill a clear glass with room temperature water.

Work up a bit of saliva, then spit it into the glass of water. Check the water every 15 minutes or so for up to one hour.

If you have a problem, you will see strings (like legs) traveling down into the water from the saliva floating on the top, or “cloudy” saliva will sink to the bottom of the glass, or cloudy specks will seem to be suspended in the water.

If there are no strings and the saliva is still floating after at least one hour, you probably have Candida under control, and have nothing to worry about.

The home test is a place to start. If you see strings or “cloudy” saliva that sinks, you need to work with a holistic medical doctor or a health professional to guide you in your diet and use of supplements to turn this problem around.

Your digestive tract is your first line of defense when it comes to your health. Getting guidance in this area will ease the burden on your immune system and restore balance to your digestive tract, leading to better health.

Do You Need to Prepare for Menopause?

You’re probably asking, “Is there really a way to prepare for menopause?” The answer is yes and no. It’s not like you can go to your calendar and write “menopause” on September 22, 2025. It’s not that easy, although most women sure wished it was; however, although we may not know the exact date that menopause will begin, we can prepare for it by being informed and learning as much as possible about the subject.

From the time of your first period until your 40’s, your ovaries produce estrogen in response to monthly follicle maturation. Both estrogen and progesterone are responsible for the monthly menstrual cycle and both are produced using male hormones. During her reproductive years, a woman’s ovaries produce more estrogen than testosterone. As menopause nears, the estrogen level declines while the male hormone levels stay about the same. Lacking former levels of estrogen to counteract them, hair growth on the face and oily skin may begin to crop up during the years right before menopause in some women.

As Age Reach 40, Changes Happen

A woman is born with approximately one half million eggs. Over time, that number decreases as some are reabsorbed back into the ovarian lining. As a woman ages get older, the number of eggs available for release also diminishes. As a result, from about age 40, a woman’s period will begin to change.

In her mid-40s a woman becomes perimenopausal. The period of time from perimenopause to postmenopause can take 5 to 10 years. A full decade before you become menopausal, changes are happening in your body that begins to set the stage for the transition from reproductive to nonreproductive states. Up to 50% of women are beginning to experience hot flashes in the two-year period before cessation of menstruation. Menstruation at this time is also likely to be erratic. During this period a woman is considered to be perimenopausal.

As soon as you begin noticing changes in your menstrual cycle, especially if you’re in your 40’s, you should consult with your gynecologist, who will probably want to run a battery of tests. One of the tests your doctor should perform is a blood test that will check your hormone levels.

But change is certain. There is no predicting your own passage through menopause; it may be long or short, bumpy or smooth. Nor can you foresee the time when you will begin it.

Whenever and however menopausal changes appear, it can be valuable to have information beforehand and while you’re experiencing menopause. Studies have shown that women who are prepared to take charge of their own health care tend to do best through the menopausal passage. Information can function as your survival kit as you negotiate your way through this very important change in your life.

Menopause Symptoms – Herbal Remedies

Menopause is a natural occurrence for women and it is something which every woman will face at some point in her life. Fortunately, studies have been done in order to provide herbal treatments and remedies for women going through this stage. Herbal remedies, as controversial as they are, can potentially provide positive effects for women experiencing menopausal symptoms. Here are some common menopausal symptoms and the best form of herbal remedy associated with each:

o Hot Flashes – Hot flashes are one of the most common symptoms for women during menopause. Hot flashes can last up to 6 minutes and can potentially occur several times within one day.

Herbal Remedy – Black Cohosh (also known as squaw root, black snake root or rattle weed) has been studied and is proven as a reputable treatment for hot flashes.

o Insomnia – Many women experiencing menopausal symptoms also have difficulty sleeping. If you suffer from sleeplessness on a regular basis, you probably suffer from chronic insomnia.

Herbal Remedies – Kava (or Kawa) is used throughout the world as a remedy for anxiety and insomnia. Other remedies proven effective for treating insomnia and sleeplessness are Valerian root and HOPS.

o Depression and Mood Swings – Although most people joke about women becoming depressed and moody during menopause, these symptoms are very serious and if not treated properly can become dangerous and harmful.

Herbal Remedy – St. John’s Wart (also known as goat weed) has proven to be an affective antidepressant in reversing the feelings of depression which many menopausal women experience.

o Abnormal Hair Growth – Abnormal hair growth (also called hirsuitism) is perhaps one of the most embarrassing symptoms for women suffering from menopause. Abnormal hair growth can occur anywhere, although above the upper lip is usually a common target.

Herbal Remedy – Saw Palmetto (also known as Serenoa repens or windmill palm) is used for treating men with enlarged prostates as well as for women who are experiencing abnormal hair growth during menopause.

Menopause is a difficult time for every woman, but every woman must face it at some point. Approaching menopause with a positive attitude has been proven to reduce the likeliness of some menopausal symptoms like depression and anxiety. Researching remedies and treatments is the best way to prepare for this stage of your life. This way, when it does happen, you’re aware of what to expect and the best ways to deal with it.